Who needs to be tested?

Two (2) or more males who believe they share the same male lineage

The Y-STR paternal lineage test is used to determine whether two or more males are related through their fathers (through the paternal/male line).

    Turnaround Time

    • Five (5) business days from receipt of all samples

    Chain-of-Custody Requirements

    Chain-of-custody requirements must be fulfilled for test results to be defensible in any legal situation, such as inheritance disputes. These requirements include the following:

    • Samples are collected by a neutral third party, such as a clinic or laboratory
    • The individuals tested are positively identified (i.e., they present a government-issued ID to be photocopied and/or they are photographed and fingerprinted)
    • A standard DNA kit is used
    • Each party completes and signs a Client Identification and Consent Form
    • Guardianship of tested minor must be verified at the time of signing consent
    • The kit may not be in the possession of the clients prior to or after being collected
    • If a Y-STR test is performed for legal purposes, the testing lab is required to perform an additional test to determine the underlying relationship. For example, if two males believe they are siblings but they decide to do a Y-STR test, the lab is required to perform the Y-STR and a Siblingship test. This is an AABB accreditation requirement. The test to determine the underlying relationship requires additional costs. Please contact your case manager for questions about pricing

    Non-Chain-of-Custody Requirements

    • In a non-chain of custody test, samples are collected by the patients themselves (or assisted by collection site). Results of this test are for personal knowledge only and may not be used for legal purposes
    • An in-home kit is used, and buccal samples can be collected by the patients themselves (or assisted by collection site) at a time and place of their choosing
    • Since the origin of the samples cannot be verified, names are listed on the report in the same way they are labeled on the samples
    • A unique barcode is assigned to each kit and will appear on the report as a reference for the case
    • Barcoded kits are assigned to your account for easy reference 
    • If a Y-STR test is performed for non-legal purposes, the lab is not required to perform an additional test to determine the underlying relationship


    • The Y chromosome is passed from the biological father only to his male offspring. For example, a grandfather passes his Y chromosome to his son, who then passes it on to the grandson
    • Haplotypes are used to identify a paternal lineage. A haplotype is a combination of alleles on the Y chromosome
    • Y chromosome haplotypes are not unique. Common Y chromosome haplotypes can occur several times in a population
    • Y chromosome analysis can be used to provide inclusionary or exclusionary evidence of male lineage to support the results of relatedness testing (siblingship, reconstruction, and avuncular tests)